• PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    OVERVIEW

    A strong correlation exists between physical fitness and academic achievement. Physical education has been part of the required school curriculumin California for decades due to the consensus among the community and legislators that physical activity is essential for children’s healthy growthand development. Physicaleducationistheonly subject identified in the California Education Code with a mandated number of minutes for instruction. It is our responsibility to ensure that quality physical education instruction is provided for all students and complies with state and federal mandates governing physical education.

     

    First Lady Michelle Obama stated in her Let’s Move launch on physical and emotional health in February of 2010: “The physical and emotional health of an entire generation and the economic health and security of our nation is at stake. This isn’t the kind of problem that can be solved overnight, but with everyone working together, it can be solved. So, let’s move!”

     

    Additionally, research shows that providing recess breaks throughout the day can improve students’ classroom behavior and attentiveness, that students can accumulate up to 40 percent of their total daily physical activity during recess, and that students who are obese or at increased risk for obesity are least likely to have recess.12 Therefore, schools should protect recess time from disciplinary measure and from any school activities that would impinge upon recess time.

     

    Therefore, it is imperative for ourDistrict to build and provide quality physical education programs that will ensure a strong foundation for students to make good lifestyle choices. Furthermore, our District should proactively seek opportunities to provide physical activity programming at its school sites when schools are not in session for youth and adults within its catchment area as a means of increasing access to safe places for physical activity.

    MEANS USED TO PROMOTE WELLNESS

    Physical Education Opportunities and Physical Activity

    Students in all grades should experience quality physical education in a sequential and comprehensive manner andin an enjoyable, safe, and secure learning environment. An optimum, qualityphysical education programhas the following components:

     

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    Adequate space to maximize practice opportunities for each child.

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    Adequate equipment for students to be actively engaged individually, with partners, or in small groups to maximize practice opportunities.

     

     

     

     

     

     

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    Physical education time shall be protected from school activities that would impinge on physical education class time.

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    Physical fitness development activitieswith testing provided in the Grades 4–12 with mandated testing for all students in the Grades 5, 7, and 9 and students with disabilities as conditions permit.

     

     

     

     

     

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    Annual professional development provided for all administrators and teachers of physical education on the appropriate protocols in administering the FITNESSGRAM physical performance test.*

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    Annual professional development for all administrators and teachers of physical education on standards-based instructional practices with instructional unit development and sample lessons.*

     

     

     

     

     

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    Physical Education InstructionalGuides that support a written comprehensive and sequential standards-based physical education curriculumprovided for all teachers of physical education for use in their classes.

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    Comprehensive physical education professional development provided for each supervising Educational Service Center and school-site administrator.*

     

     

     

     

     

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    Physical education programs ensuring that students will spendat least 50% of the physical educationclass time participating in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, whether or not students have dressed-out.

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    FITNESSGRAMresults posted on the District andindividual school-site School Accountability Report Card (EC 51223), and the District’s Performance Meter.

     

     

     

     

     

     

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    Physical education class sizes comparable to class sizes in other subject areas.

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    Certification that all coaches have completed First Aid, CPR, coaching education, and concussion training.

     

    Elementary Physical Education

    When basic movement skills are developed at an early age and expanded during childhood and early adolescence, children will gain access to and have more success in a wide varietyof physical activities. To promote lifetime activity habits early in life, teachers must select developmentally appropriate activities forelementary-age students. The following are important components of elementary physical education programs:

     

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    Teacher selection of developmentally appropriate activities for elementary-aged students to ensure student success in a wide variety of physical activities and to promote lifetime activity habits early in life.

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    Physical education instruction at the elementary level to include 200 minutes of instruction each 10 school days. (EC 51210)

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    FITNESSGRAM physical performance test administered correctly in the Grades 5, 7, and 9 by qualified staff during the month of February, March, April, or May with results reported to the California Department of Education. (EC 60800)

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    FITNESSGRAM practice test administered correctly in the Grade 4 by qualified staff during the month of February, March, April, or May without reporting the results to the CDE.

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    Physical education facilities designed, developed, and constructed according to the California Department of Education Guide to School Site Analysis and Development.

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    It is recommended that a physical education adviser be provided at each Educational Service Centers/ISIC to provide assistance of physical education programs.*

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    It is recommended that a single-subject physical education credentialed teacher provide quality physical education instruction for each 300 students at the elementary school level to provide release time for elementary classroom teachers.

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    One physical education teacher may not teach more than one classroom of students during the 30-minute physical education instructional period.

     

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    Elementary teachers are encouraged to provide information to their students to take home to their parents on the Ask, Advise and Refer (AAR) protocol for tobacco cessation. AAR information can be found at the PE website: https://achieve.lausd.net/Page/564.

     

     

     

    Daily Recess

    Recess is an important part of the school day for children. Activity breaks enhance participation and learning inthe classroom and promote student wellness. Not only does recess provide opportunities for needed physical activity, but this unstructured time also provides opportunities for student decision making and contributes tocreativity and social learning. The following are important components of recess:

     

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    Twenty minutes a day ofsupervised recess is provided with adequate outdoor space and equipment where moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is verbally encouraged and provided for students.

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    Recess time is protected from disciplinary measures and school activities that would impinge on recess time.

     

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    Extended periods of inactivity (two or more hours) is discouraged for such activities as mandatory school wide testing where students are provided with periodic activity breaksduring which they are encouraged to stand and be moderately active (example, juggling scarves).

     

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    The environment is supportive of all students and promotes developing a positive self-concept.   Students are free from criticism or harassment from other students.

    Secondary Physical Education 6-12

    A developmentally and instructionally appropriate physical education programpromotes a physically active lifestyle and student wellness. Physical education provides the physical component of a total education facilitating optimal physical development and student wellness. Physical education focuses on physical development while also integrating the emotional, social, and intellectualcomponents that develop the whole child. Good physical education programs prepare the adolescent to safely meet the physical demands of daily life, to use activity for health benefits for a lifetime, and to enjoy physical activity during leisure time. Safely engaging in physical activity is critical. Between 2005 and 2011, the rate of Los Angeles County residents treated for concussions in emergency departments (ED) increased by 58%. Young and young adults ages 15-24 years had the highest rates of ED visit for concussions, particularly males, whites, and African-Americans. Among injuries that had an associated activity reported, team sports accounted for nearly half of all concussions.13 The following components delineate the physical education programfor secondary students:

     

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    Physicaleducationinstructionatthesecondarylevelincludes400 minutes of instruction each 10 school days, all year long, for students in middle and high school, including students with disabilities and special health-care needsand thoseinalternative education settings. (EC 51222)

     

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    A comprehensive and sequential physical education programis provided for students in Grades 9–12with exposure to the eight core content areas as described in the California Code of Regulations, Title 5, §10060.

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    The optimum physical education class size average is equal to the norm chart average of the “all other category” identified in BUL-1123-4 and 1123.

     

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    A secondary physical education class size does not exceed the maximum of 52+/–3 students.

     

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    A variety of electives(minimumof 3 to 4) are offered to students currently exempted from 2 of the 4 years of physical education core content classes. (EC 51222(b))

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    Physicaleducationcore-contentclasses are provided for all students in Grade 9 except those studentsenrolled in and competing in athletic programs.

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    Physical Education Course One content, identified in the Physical Education Model Content Standardsfor California Public Schools, includes mechanics of movement,effects of physical activity upon dynamic health, aquatics, dance, and individual and dual activities.

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    Physical Education Course Two content, identified in the Physical Education Model Content Standardsfor California Public Schools, includes mechanics of movement,effects of physical activity upon dynamic health, combatives, gymnastics/tumbling, and team activities to students for their second year of physical education in Grades 10-12.

     

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    FITNESSGRAM physical performance test isadministered correctly to all students in Grade 9 by qualified staff during the months of February, March, April, or Maywithresults reported to the California Department of Education. (EC 60800)

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    Physicaleducationclasses are conducted in a coeducational manner. (Title IX, 106.00, 106.34; 5CCR4930.4931,4940) (EC 200, 201, 220,221.5, 235, 260)

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    In order to facilitate standards-based instruction, middle school physical education classes are recommended to be articulated by grade level.

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    Senior High Schools would be articulated whenever possible to ensure that each student receives the CCR Title 5 content.

     

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    All students in Grade 9 must meetfive of six assessments (In Healthy Fitness Zone) on theFITNESSGRAM test to earn the right to exempt themselves from Physical Education for two years in Grades 10-12 within the mandated testing window. (EC 51241)

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    Secondary physical education teachers are encouraged to provide information to their students on the Ask, Advise and Refer (AAR) protocol for tobacco cessation. AAR information can be found at https://achieve.lausd.net/Page/5643.

     

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    Tools are in place to monitorand provide assistance for K–12 physical education programs to maintain compliance with the Education Code and ensure adequacy of physical education facilities and equipment.

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    Meals for athletes are encouraged to be made available to schools when students have night games. These meals could be consumed before or after contest depending on time of day.

     

    Physical Activity Opportunities Before and After School

    Whereas recess is unstructured time, physical education is a structured instructional programwith specific goals and objectives, and after-school programs vary between structured and unstructured. The programs after school should provide more opportunities for students toextend and refine the skills that were learned in the physical education programs.

     

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    Extracurricular physical activity programs for elementary, middle, and high school students are offered before and after school in a variety of supervised activities in physical activity clubs or intramural programs.

     

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    Interscholastic sports programs areoffered, as appropriate for high school and middle schools, with a wide range of activities that meet the needs, interests, and abilities ofall students,including boys, girls, students with disabilities, and students withspecial health-care needs.

     

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    After-school childcare and enrichmentprograms are provided with adequate outdoor space and equipment where moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is encouraged and provided for all participants.

     

    Physical Activity and Punishment

    Physical education should be taughtas a positive experience to motivate students to be engaged in lifelong fitness and physical activity, not as a negative experience with punishment (e.g. running laps, doing push-ups, etc.) being forced upon themand serving as a detriment toward reaching fitness goals.

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    Physical activity (imposing or withholding of) shall not be used as a disciplinary measure.

     

    Joint Use Facilities

    The District recognizes that many of its students and their families live in park-poor areas14,15, are disproportionately impacted by obesity, and that school sites offer the only available safe place for physical activity in certain neighborhoods. Research indicates that joint use agreements are a promising strategy for increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity among adults and children in under-resourced communities. Providing physical activity programs may substantially increase after-hours use of school facilities by community members.16 Therefore, afterschool programs should be made available to the general public, particularly those over 18 years for whom this programming is currently very limited, through any of the District’s existing mechanisms for accessing school facilities in order to promote increased physical activity among families and the general public, which can provide youth with positive role-modeling for healthy, life-long physical activity behaviors.

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    Schools are encouraged to proactively seek opportunities that allow parents and community members to use school facilities for physical activity via youth and adult programming.

     

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    Parent groups and organizations in LAUSD are encouraged to engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity with adequate equipment and within adequate space.