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Division of Special Education



  • Frequently Asked Questions


     

Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)

A Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) is a process to identify and understand behavior(s) that impedes learning.  The assessor conducts a record review, interviews and observations regarding the student’s problem behavior(s) in the school environment and analyzes the results to identify the function (i.e., why) of the behavior(s). Function-based interventions are developed based on the results of the assessment.

An FBA may be appropriate when one or more of the following apply:

  • A student with a disability exhibits behavior(s) that impedes learning and previous interventions have been unsuccessful.
  • Formal disciplinary action has been taken (i.e., expulsion process, suspension/10 days).
  • The school team has been unable to identify the possible function of
    the problem behavior(s).

A student exhibits behavior(s) that is a danger to self or others.

BII Service

BII services are a related service provided based on assessed need. If you believe that your child would benefit from a related service, discuss your concerns with the school-site administrator.

No; an FBA does not give BII services. The purpose of an FBA is to determine why a problem behavior(s) is occurring and to create interventions for the development of alternative and prosocial behaviors that serve the same purpose as the problem behavior(s). The determination of BII services is based on data and the individual needs of the student. At the Individualized Education Program (IEP) meeting, the IEP team will discuss the FBA results using relevant data when considering the type, level, frequency, and duration of supports.

The role of the Behavior Intervention Implementation (BII) service provider is to provide behavioral interventions, including implementation of a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP), to support a student’s problem behavior(s) that impedes learning.  Per California Ed Code 5 CCR § 3051.23 § 3051.23, personnel who implement behavioral interventions shall deliver services under the supervision of qualified staff who have designed and planned said interventions. A BII service provider must possess a high school diploma or its equivalent, and receive the specific level of supervision as required in the student’s IEP.

Academic concerns are addressed by the teacher(s) through instruction and the accommodations identified in the student’s IEP.  Please address any academic concerns you may have with the classroom teacher(s).

Social-emotional learning is embedded in the daily instructional program. Students have opportunities to practice social skills throughout the school day in a variety of settings. Please address any concerns you may have related to social-emotional learning with the classroom teacher(s)/school administration.  

Communication related to your child’s progress is the responsibility of certificated staff {e.g., classroom teacher(s), case-carrying teacher, teacher(s) providing BIC/BID service}. BII service providers are typically classified staff who implement the behavioral interventions developed by certificated staff.

Behavior Intervention Implementation (BII) is not a specific person, but rather a service.  It is the school-site administrator’s responsibility to assign one or more personnel to deliver BII services. Utilizing different BII service providers increases opportunities for the student to acquire and use learned skills with different people in various settings.

This is an IEP team decision, however typically behavioral intervention service is provided during the school day. Behavior Intervention Implementation (BII) is a service that is typically provided during the instructional day as outlined in the student’s IEP. 

Yes, there are various ongoing trainings that are offered and available to BII service providers and other paraprofessionals. 

Research indicates that there are potential harmful side effects of this individualized service.  BII services may create dependence on the service provider(s) if the student looks for support and encouragement solely from the BII service provider rather than the teacher(s) and their peers.  The presence of the BII service provider(s) may inhibit age-appropriate social interactions and cause the student to feel stigmatized as well as embarrassed with having the additional support.

BIC/BID Services

BIC and BID are data-driven services offered by an IEP team based on student need. Delivery of prescribed service minutes are established in collaboration with the student’s educational team.

Behavior Intervention Consultation (BIC) is a consultative, data-driven, and flexible service unique to the LAUSD Division of Special Education, while Behavior Intervention Development (BID) is a targeted, data-driven service in which a Behavior Treatment Plan (BTP) is developed for implementation. BIC services are delivered by certificated and classified staff members from the Division of Special Education Behavior Support Department who are trained in Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). The BIC service provider(s) trains and coaches the student’s educational team in delivering behavioral interventions within the Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) continuum to address individual student need. Behavior Intervention Development (BID) services are delivered by staff in alignment with California Code of Regulations 5 CCR § 3051.23 § 3051.23. The BID service provider(s) develops and delivers targeted, evidence-based interventions through ongoing implementation and evaluation of behavioral programs. The BID service provider collaborates and consults with the student’s educational team to develop a Behavior Treatment Plan (BTP) based on data, and trains staff on data collection and implementation of the BTP.

General Questions about Behavior Services

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a set of principles based on the science of learning and behavior that form the basis for many behavioral methodologies.  ABA is an evidenced-based framework from which basic principles of behavior change are applied to socially significant behaviors, specifically to increase desired behaviors and decrease undesired behaviors. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) requires that students with disabilities (SWD) who are eligible for special education and any related services are provided with programs designed to address their unique and individual needs.

When deemed appropriate, there are various ways to obtain ABA services at home. Here are a few:

  1. Funding through Insurance: Please work with your child’s primary care provider to make a referral for appropriate services.
  2. Funding through Medicaid: Most children enrolled in Medicaid receive services through either a Medicaid health plan such as a health maintenance organization (HMO) or another insurance company. Documentation from your child’s primary care provider showing ABA is medically necessary is required in order to get coverage under Medicaid.
  3. Funding through Regional Center: Contact the California Department of Developmental Services (DDS) at (916) 654-1690 or by going to the DDS website at https://www.dds.ca.gov/.
  4. Funding through Private Pay: Direct out-of-pocket payment is an option if your family does not meet criteria for other funding methods. For more information, contact an agency that provides ABA services.

Once the IEP has been signed and consented to, service providers will be assigned, and service delivery will begin.

Academic support refers to school-wide and classroom-level instructional practices, services, and resources that assist students with skill acquisition and learning. Academic support utilizes a variety of researched-based strategies for students both with and without disabilities.

Behavioral support refers to school-wide and classroom-level behavioral practices, services, and resources used by a student’s educational team to increase student engagement, prevent and deescalate problem or crisis behaviors, and teach alternative ways to respond. Behavioral support utilizes a variety of researched-based strategies for students both with and without disabilities.

All students are entitled to participate in programs offered by a school. If your child needs support with behavior(s), please discuss your child’s need(s) with the individual program’s leadership team.  An example of an out-of-school program is Beyond the Bell which provides supervised academic enrichment and recreation programs beyond the regular school day (i.e., before school, after school and Saturdays) on most LAUSD school campuses.  For more information about Beyond the Bell click here.  For information on any programs offered at your school, please check with your school site.  

There are several ways you can help your child at home. The following are a few examples:

  1. Plan activities that incorporate your child’s strengths, interests and hobbies.
  2. Structure your day with routines so that your child knows what to expect. Inform your child about any changes or upcoming events that may alter the routine such as doctor appointments, visitors, outings, etc.
  3. Clearly communicate the desired behavior you want your child to demonstrate.
  4. Know the activities and/or times of day that may trigger your child.
  5. Choose activities that provide your child with immediate success and gradually incorporate less preferred or more difficult tasks.
  6. Praise your child immediately when you see the desired behavior(s).

No; “earning something” and bribery are not the same. “Earning something” is reinforcement (e.g., praise, tokens, preferred items or activities) that is delivered following occurrences of a desired behavior. It involves a systematic plan (developed in advance) that lets others know we are paying attention to them and their efforts.    

Bribery is intended solely to benefit the person who is offering the bribe. Unlike “earning something,” bribery is meant to stop someone from engaging in a behavior and does not teach desired behaviors.  Bribery can be delivered with preferred items, activities or any other form of “payment.”

Concerns with Behavior

NCLB (No Child Left Behind) states, “the participation of parents in regular, two-way, and meaningful communication involving student academic learning and other school activities including ensuring that (a) parents play an integral role in assisting their child’s learning; (b) parents are encouraged to be actively involved in their child’s education at school; and (c) parents are full partners in their child’s education and are included, as appropriate, in decision-making and on advisory committees to assist in the education of their child” (NCLB, 2002, § 9101, [32] “Parental Involvement”).

The following are a few ways that you can support your child when asked to assist with behavior(s):

 

  1. Communication
  • Partner with teacher(s) and administrator(s) to gather and provide pertinent information regarding your child (e.g., patterns of behavior at home, known triggers, medications/health, and changes in home life).
  • Establish a mutually acceptable way to maintain communication (e.g., daily journal/log, best time(s) to call, current contact information).
  1. Plan for Success:
  • Collaborate with the school team to update or develop an intervention plan {e.g., behavior contract, point sheet, Interim Behavior Response Plan (IBRP)}.
  • Actively participate in your child’s IEP to update or develop the Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP).
  • Be consistent and follow through at home with the interventions and reinforcements that were developed and agreed to.

 

Concerns related to behavioral services should be discussed with your school-site administrator.  If the issue(s) of concern is not resolved, there are other steps that you can take (See “A Parent’s Guide to Special Education Services” and “Procedural Rights and Safeguards.”) For further information, visit: https://achieve.lausd.net/cms/lib/CA01000043/Centricity/Domain/168/Parents%20Guide%20September%202018%20English.pdf.

Suspension & Expulsion

When it comes to suspension or expulsion, there are many factors that must be considered, and each event is analyzed on a case-by-case basis.  All students, including those with disabilities, can be suspended or expelled for violating the school's code of conduct. However, IDEIA provides some additional procedures and safeguards schools and Districts must follow when considering suspension/expulsion of students with disabilities (SWD).  When a school disciplinary action leads to consideration of a long-term suspension and/or expulsion, an IEP meeting must be convened and the parent/guardian must be invited to participate. For more information on this process, click here: https://home.lausd.net/apps/news/article/626607

IEP

A Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) is an individualized plan created for targeting a specific problem behavior(s). The components of a BIP include the problem behavior(s), a hypothesized reason for the occurrence, and strategies to address the behavior(s).  These include prevention, reinforcement, redirection, and teaching strategies.

If you believe that your child needs a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP), please speak to your child’s school-site administrator about your concerns. You can also request an IEP team meeting to review progress and collaboratively develop a BIP as appropriate.

If you have concerns with the behavior goal(s) for your child, please speak to your child’s school-site administrator about your concerns. You can also request an IEP team meeting to review progress and collaboratively revise the behavior goal(s) as appropriate.

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  •  Los Angeles Unified School District ♦ Division of Special Education 

    333 South Beaudry Avenue, 17th Floor, Los Angeles, CA  90017