•  
     
     

    Serving Students with Disabilities

    Parentally Placed Students Attending Private Schools Located Within LAUSD Boundaries

     
  • Starting March 11, 2019, the Individual Services Plan (ISP)

    is available in Welligent through the IEP Module. 

     

    Attached is a Job Aid to assist you with the Welligent ISP Navigation.

     

Menu of Options - Click on the Title for More Information

Child Find Los Angeles Unified School District is committed to locating, identifying and evaluating students with disabilities parentally placed in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, regardless of the student’s residency status. If you suspect your child or a student in your program has a disability, you may discuss the evaluation process with a District representative. Please contact your child's school of residence, the LAUSD public school nearest your private school, or a private school consultant for assistance.

 

Child Find is an important step in the special education process. It is the process of locating, identifying, and evaluating any student between the ages of 5-21 with an identified disability or suspected disability. This step in the special education process determines whether or not a child has a disability that adversely impacts his/her educational performance.

For students that are currently attending a private school, the responsibility to conduct Child Find belongs to the district where the private school is located. LAUSD is committed to locating, identifying and evaluating students with disabilities or a suspected disability enrolled in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, regardless of the student’s residency status.
 

If a child attends a private school and has a disability or is suspected of having a disability that is adversely impacting his/her educational performance, a special education evaluation may be requested by choosing ONE of the following options:

 

Resident Students

  • For students residing within and attending a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, written requests for initial or three-year special education evaluations are made to the public school of residence.

 

 

Non-Resident Students

  • For students whose residence is outside LAUSD boundaries but attend a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, written requests for initial or three-year special education evaluations are made to the LAUSD Special Education Private School Office.

 

If a parent is considering enrolling his/her child in a public school, then the parent should be referred to the district of residence for evaluation (Child Find) for purposes of providing an offer of a Free Appropirate Public Education (FAPE).

To learn more about the special education evaluation process, please visit the Division of Special Education website.

The Division of Special Education conducts timely and meaningful consultation with private school representatives and parents to develop the current private school program. This process determines the services and supports provided to students with disabilities parentally placed in private schools located within LAUSD boundaries. This policy ensures that all eligible students receive some benefit from special education services while parentally placed in a private school program.

 

ENGLISH or SPANISH

FAQs

These are Frequently Asked Questions from parents to the Private School Office and LAUSD schools. Most questions can be answered by reviewing this website and looking at the questions listed here. If your question is still not answered, contact the Private School Office or one of our many field consultants for additional support.
  

 

What if I live in another district, but my child attends a private school within LAUSD boundaries? How should I request an assessment?

You may make your request  to the public school nearest the private school your child attends or the Private School Office. The public school will receive your written request and send your  request along with supporting documents to the Division of Special Education, Private School Office. To find the public school nearest the private school of attendance, enter the address of the private school in School Finder.

My child is struggling in private school. What can I do?

If there are concerns regarding your child’s academic progress, consult with the staff at the private school to discuss universal or targeted interventions for supporting your child’s learning. Working with the teachers and other instructional personnel at your school to address the issues is usually an effective technique and should be utilized before more intensive interventions are considered.

My child is under the age of 5 and attends a private preschool. How do I request a special education evaluation or services?

Contact the Infant and Preschool Special Education Office at 213-241-6701 for a child, from birth to age three, or a child age three or four who is not enrolled in a District preschool program.

Does LAUSD provide an Individual Services Plan to a child attending a private school located in another school district's boundaries?

No. The district of location is responsible for providing an Individual Services Plan for students with disabilities. Each public school district develops their own policy based on meaningful consultation with private school and parent representatives. Locate and contact the school district where your private school is located. A list of public school districts in the greater Los Angeles area can be found here. Each district has a Special Education department or administrator responsible for its private school policy and programs.

How long is the assessment process?

Federal regulations permit local education agencies to review and consider the appropriateness of requests for special education evaluation.

Within fifteen (15) days, not counting school vacations greater than five (5) days, of the receipt of a request for assessment, parents/guardians will receive a written response from the District.

  • If the District determines that an assessment is appropriate, an assessment plan indicating the areas to be assessed will be provided.
  • If the District determines that an assessment is not appropriate, a written notice of this decision will be provided.

The school has sixty (60) days, not counting school vacations greater than five (5) days, from the receipt of a signed assessment plan to complete the assessments and hold an Individualized Education Program (IEP) meeting to review the results of the assessments.

What services are available to my child who attends a private school?

Students with disabilities enrolled in private schools by their parents do not have an individual right to receive some or all of the special education and related services they would receive if enrolled in a public school.

LAUSD has developed a policy to provide alternative services under Individualized Services Plan for children with special education eligibility. These services include consultative services and/or professional development services.

Does my child's private school need to know that I am requesting a special education evaluation?

In order to complete a valid, reliable, non-discriminatory evaluation, the assessment process requires access to records and direct observation in the child's current educational program. With written consent from the parent, the child's current and previous schools of attendance, whether public or private, will be contacted for the following purposes, including, but not limited to:

  • Obtain student record
  • Request student work samples
  • Interview and/or receive reports from the classroom teachers and other educational providers
  • Observe the child participating in his/her current educational environment
What if I only want the assessment and I do not want an IEP meeting?

Once parents/guardians consent to a special education assessment plan, public school districts are required to convene an IEP meeting to review the results of the assessment, determine eligibility, and develop an individualized educational (IEP) program for eligible students.

Will I have to send my child to public school if he/she receives an IEP?

No. An IEP provides assessment and eligibility information and/or an offer of a free appropriate public education. Parents have the right to accept or decline any offer of FAPE. 

If the parent accepts the offer of FAPE, the student may enroll in a public school to receive special education services. 

If the parent agrees that FAPE has been offered but declines the offer of FAPE and continues enrollment in the private school, an Individualized Services Plan meeting will be held to offer an Individualized Services Plan.

What is an IEP meeting?

After a child has been assessed, an INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP) meeting will be held. At this meeting, the IEP team will discuss the assessment results and determine whether or not the child is eligible for special education services. If the child is eligible, then an IEP that provides a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) will also be developed during the meeting.

How do I request an assessment from LAUSD?

If you reside within LAUSD boundaries and your child attends a private school within LAUSD boundaries, contact your public school of residence to make the request.

What is an Individual Services Plan?

LAUSD develops an Individual Services Plan for any student with a disability, ages 5–21, parentally placed in a private school located within the district’s boundaries. An Individual Services Plan describes the alternative services a child is eligible to receive. Students with disabilities enrolled in private schools by their parents do not have an individual right to receive some or all of the special education and related services they would receive if enrolled in a public school. The district where the private school is located does have the responsibility to ensure equitable participation through the development of an Individual Services Plan. Services provided through an LAUSD Individual Services Plan are developed through timely and meaningful consultation with private school and parent representatives.

My child has been evaluated privately. Does my child need an evaluation from a school district in order to receive services?

Public school districts reserve the right to conduct their own evaluations before making a determination of special education eligibility.  Parents may present an outside evaluation to the IEP team and the IEP team must consider the evaluation as part of the IEP process.  If you have obtained outside reports or assessments, please include that information with your request for evaluation.

 

Parentally-Placed Private School Office

 
Administration

Araceli May, Coordinator 

333 South Beaudry Ave, 17th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90017

phone: (213) 241-6701 

phone: (213) 241-5417

fax: (213) 241-8499

Email:  PPPSO@lausd.net

 


 
 
Private School Consultants
 

 

Consultant

Primary Work Location

Coverage Area

Phone Number

 

Carrie Bushey

 

LD-South

South/San Pedro

(310) 415-7861

 

Vanessa Cardoza

 

LD-East

West/East/Central

(310) 415-1820

 

Nancy Essenpreis

 

LD-Northwest

Northeast

 

(818) 738-3831

 

 

Natalie Estrada

 

LD-Northeast

 Northeast/East

(323) 513-5697

 

Eleni Georgilas

 

LD-Northwest

Northeast

(818) 823-3972

 

Karen Hacker

 

LD-Northwest

Northwest

(213) 222-7641

 

Ron Kuan

 

LD-South

South/Central

(213) 222-7531

 

Michelle Moutes

 

LD-Northwest

Northwest

(818) 738-3871

 

Yvette Seydoux

 

LD-East

Central/East

(323) 895-8374

 

Robert Toggenburger

 

LD-Northwest

Northeast/Northwest

(213) 222-7882

 

Jill Tracie

 

LD-Northwest

Northeast

(213) 222-7656

Dexter Jay Viray, Ph.D.

 

LD-South

 

South/West

(310) 415-7921

 

Lauren Weissman

 

 

LD-West

 

West/Central

(310) 415-7943

 

Policy For Serving Students with Disabilities Parentally Placed in a Private School


The Division of Special Education has developed the following policy for serving students with disabilities, ages 5-21. When parents choose to place their child in a private school located within Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) boundaries, we will:

Locate, identify, and evaluate students eligible for special education services or suspected of having a disability attending a private school located within District boundaries.
  1. Offer a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) to eligible students residing within District boundaries.
  2. Provide FAPE to eligible students residing within District boundaries upon enrollment in a public school.
  3. Develop an Individual Services Plan (ISP) that provides alternative services to eligible students with disabilities whose parents choose to place them in private schools located within District boundaries, regardless of where the student resides.

 

Child Find

Los Angeles Unified School District is committed to locating, identifying and evaluating students with disabilities parentally placed in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, regardless of the student’s residency status. If you suspect your child or a student in your program has a disability, you may discuss the evaluation process with a District representative. Please contact your child's school of residence, the LAUSD public school nearest your private school, or a private school consultant for assistance.

 

Child Find Child Find is an important step in the special education process. It is the process of locating, identifying, and evaluating any student between the ages of 5-21 with an identified disability or suspected disability. This step in the special education process determines whether or not a child has a disability that adversely impacts his/her educational performance.

For students that are currently attending a private school, the responsibility to conduct Child Find belongs to the district where the private school is located. LAUSD is committed to locating, identifying and evaluating students with disabilities or a suspected disability enrolled in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, regardless of the student’s residency status.
 

If a child attends a private school and has a disability or is suspected of having a disability that is adversely impacting his/her educational performance, a special education evaluation may be requested by choosing ONE of the following options:

 

Resident Students

  • For students residing within and attending a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, written requests for initial or three-year special education evaluations are made to the public school of residence.

 

 

Non-Resident Students

  • For students whose residence is outside LAUSD boundaries but attend a private school located within LAUSD boundaries, written requests for initial or three-year special education evaluations are made to the LAUSD Special Education Private School Office.

 

If a parent is considering enrolling his/her child in a public school, then the parent should be referred to the district of residence for evaluation (Child Find) for purposes of providing an offer of a Free Appropirate Public Education (FAPE).

To learn more about the special education evaluation process, please visit the Division of Special Education website.

 

Individual Services Plan

  • The Los Angeles Unified School District develops an Individual Services Plan (ISP) for any student with a disability, ages 5–21, parentally placed in a private school located within the District’s boundaries. An Individual Services Plan describes the alternative services a child is eligible to receive. Students with disabilities enrolled in private schools by their parents do not have an individual right to receive some or all of the special education and related services they would receive if enrolled in a public school. The District where the private school is located does have the responsibility to ensure equitable participation through the development of an Individual Services Plan. Services provided through an LAUSD  Individual Services Plan are developed through timely and meaningful consultation with private school and parent representatives.
     

    Individual Services Plan Meeting


    The meeting to develop the Individual Services Plan shall be convened immediately following an IEP team meeting where a student has been found eligible for special education. The parent of a child with special education eligibility enrolled in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries may request an Individual Services Plan from the school of residence or, if they do not reside within LAUSD boundaries, to the LAUSD Special Education Private School Office. LAUSD shall convene an Individual Services Plan meeting comprised of the following:

    • Student, if appropriate
    • Parent(s)/guardian(s)
    • District representative
    • Representative from the student's private schoo. If a private school representative cannot attend, participation shall be ensured by means of an individual or conference telephone call.

     

    Alternative Services


    LAUSD provides alternative services to eligible students with disabilities whose parents choose to place them in private schools located within District boundaries regardless of where the student resides. The Individual Services Plan describes the alternative services a child is eligible to receive. Equitable participation is determined through meaningful consultation with private school and parent representatives and includes the following services:

    Consultation Services


    Consultative service is designed to provide a student’s private school teacher and/or parents/guardians with instructional and behavioral strategies and supports necessary to promote the student’s participation and progress in the private school setting. 

    Professional Development


    Professional development opportunities are offered to private school teachers of all students with special education eligibilities. Professional development opportunities are designed to provide private school staff of students with disabilities with information and instructional resources to address a wide range of disability-related educational needs.
     

    Review of Individual Services Plan

     

    1. The Individualized Services Plan of a student receiving alternative service will be reviewed at an annual Individual Services Plan team meeting. Unless parents/guardians requests a reassessment or an IEP team meeting, this takes the place of an annual IEP Review.
    2. All parentally placed private school students will have an Individual Services Plan reviewed every three years when the public school of residence conducts a three year IEP to reestablish eligibility.

         

Starting March 11, 2019, the Individual Services Plan (ISP)

is available in Welligent through the IEP Module. 

 

Attached is a Job Aid to assist you with the Welligent ISP Navigation.

Individual Services Plan

 

The Los Angeles Unified School District develops an Individual Services Plan (ISP) for any student with a disability, ages 5–21, parentally placed in a private school located within the District’s boundaries. An Individual Services Plan describes the alternative services a child is eligible to receive. Students with disabilities enrolled in private schools by their parents do not have an individual right to receive some or all of the special education and related services they would receive if enrolled in a public school. The District where the private school is located does have the responsibility to ensure equitable participation through the development of an Individual Services Plan. Services provided through an LAUSD  Individual Services Plan are developed through timely and meaningful consultation with private school and parent representatives.
 

Individual Services Plan Meeting


The meeting to develop the Individual Services Plan shall be convened immediately following an IEP team meeting where a student has been found eligible for special education. The parent of a child with special education eligibility enrolled in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries may request an Individual Services Plan from the school of residence or, if they do not reside within LAUSD boundaries, to the LAUSD Special Education Private School Office. LAUSD shall convene an Individual Services Plan meeting comprised of the following:

Student, if appropriate

Parent(s)/guardian(s)

District representative

Representative from the student's private schoo. If a private school representative cannot attend, participation shall be ensured by means of an individual or conference telephone call.

 

Alternative Services


LAUSD provides alternative services to eligible students with disabilities whose parents choose to place them in private schools located within District boundaries regardless of where the student resides. The Individual Services Plan describes the alternative services a child is eligible to receive. Equitable participation is determined through meaningful consultation with private school and parent representatives and includes the following services:

Consultation Services


Consultative service is designed to provide a student’s private school teacher and/or parents/guardians with instructional and behavioral strategies and supports necessary to promote the student’s participation and progress in the private school setting.

Professional Development


Professional development opportunities are offered to private school teachers of all students with special education eligibilities. Professional development opportunities are designed to provide private school staff of students with disabilities with information and instructional resources to address a wide range of disability-related educational needs.
 

Review of Individual Services Plan

 

The Individualized Services Plan of a student receiving alternative service will be reviewed at an annual Individual Services Plan team meeting. Unless parents/guardians requests a reassessment or an IEP team meeting, this takes the place of an annual IEP Review.

All parentally placed private school students will have an Individual Services Plan reviewed every three years when the public school of residence conducts a three year IEP to reestablish eligibility.

 

Consultative Services

  • Consultative service is designed to provide a student’s private school teacher and/or parents/guardians with instructional and behavioralCS strategies and supports necessary to promote the student’s participation and access to curriculum in the private school setting.

    Which students receive consultative services?

    Consultative service is provided to the teacher(s) and/or parents/guardians of a student with an Individual Services Plan and special education eligibility that indicates:

    • Specific Learning Disability (SLD), or
    • Autism (AUT)

     

    What does this alternative service provide?

    • Instructional strategies and interventions to facilitate access to the curriculum.
    • Strategies for positive behavior support and/or social skills development.
    • Monitoring of student progress using student observations, work samples, and conferences with the teacher(s) and/or parents/guardians.
    • Disability awareness training.

     

    Who provides these services?

    These services are provided by Private School Consultants who are credentialed LAUSD special education teachers.



    How are these services provided?

    • Provided at the private school (located within LAUSD boundaries), a public site, and/or by email/phone contact.
    • Eight (8) consultations within a 12 month period.
    • Up to 60 minutes per consultation during work hours of the District provider.

Written Requests for Evaluation

Federal regulations permit local education agencies to review and consider the appropriateness of requests for special education evaluation. Parents or guardians may refer their child for assessment for special education services. Teachers, other school personnel, and community members may also refer a child for assessment; however, parental permission is required for assessment to commence.

Within fifteen (15) days, not counting school vacations greater than five (5) days, of the receipt of a referral for assessment, a written response from the District will be provided. If the District determines that an assessment is appropriate, an assessment plan will be provided. If the District determines that an assessment is not appropriate, a written notice of this decision will be provided. To assist the public school in processing a request, compile the following documents for submission to the public school responsible for Child Find:

1. Written request that provides basic information about the student, including:

  • full name, birth date, grade level
  • basic family/residence information, including home address and contact info
  • school of attendance and all previous schools attended (public and/or private)
  • a brief explanation of purpose of the request, relevant area(s) of educational concern, educational history (has the child been evaluated previously, if so when and where), and suspected disability, if known.

 

2. Release of Confidential Student Information form signed by the parent/guardian. English or Spanish

3. Copies of any educational records which may include, but not limited to:
  • Cumulative records, including academic transcripts
  • Report cards and current progress reports
  • Attendance records
  • Health records
  • Results from assessments including curriculum-based, standardized, and language proficiency exams.
  • Multi-disciplinary team meetings records, including Student Success Team (SST) or STEP meetings, parent conferences, etc.
  • Types and results of academic and/or behavioral intervention provided
  • Teacher reports, information, and/or concerns
  • Work Samples (with objectives and scores, if available)
  • Independent evaluation reports developed by outside agencies, medical providers, or private parties.

 

If a parent is unable to make a written request, a District representative will assist the parent in making the request by completing:
 
      1. Request for Special Education Assessment  - AND - 
      2. Student Questionnaire for Parents and Guardians
 

 

 

SELPA

Find the public school district where a private school is located to request a special education evaluation or Individual Services Plan (ISP) meeting.

LAUSD resident students attending a private school located outside of LAUSD boundaries make their written requests for initial or three-year special education evaluations to the school district where the private school is located.

Students with disabilities attending a private school located outside of LAUSD boundaries also request an Individual Services Plan meeting from the district where the private school is located. Each public school district is responsible for ensuring equitable participation in special education services. However, how that is provided will be different in each local school district. A Individual Services Plan meeting describes these alternative services.

You can identify the nearest public school district by asking the private school which school district is responsible for conducting special education evaluations or using online mapping tools to find the nearest public school.

 

Once the public school district is identified, parents can select from the list below of public school districts in the greater Los Angeles area for the direct contact information of their special education/private school office. A representative from the public school district should be available to answer any questions about their district's private school program and respond to the request for special education services.
 

Greater Los Angeles area public school districts

  • All
  • ABC Unified School District
  • Acton-Agua Dulce Unified School District
  • Alhambra Unified School District
  • Antelope Valley UHSD
  • Arcadia Unified School District
  • Azusa Unified School District
  • Baldwin Park Unified School District
  • Bassett Unified School District
  • Bellflower Unified School District
  • Beverly Hills Unified School District
  • Bonita Unified School District
  • Burbank Unified School District
  • Castaic Union School District
  • Centinela Valley Union HSD
  • Charter Oak Unified School District
  • Claremont Unified School District
  • Compton Unified School District
  • Conejo Valley Unified School District
  • Covina Valley Unified School District
  • Culver City Unified School District
  • Downey Unified School District
  • Duarte Unified School District
  • East Whittier City School District
  • Eastside Unified School District
  • El Monte City School District
  • El Monte Union HSD
  • El Rancho Unified School District
  • El Segundo Unified School District
  • Garvey School District
  • Glendale Unified School District
  • Glendora Unified School District
  • Gorman School District
  • Hacienda-La Puente Unified School District
  • Hawthorne School District
  • Hermosa Beach City
  • Hughes-Elizabeth Lakes Unified School District
  • Inglewood Unified School District
  • Keppel Unified School District
  • La Canada Unified School District
  • Lancaster School District
  • Las Virgenes Unified School District
  • Lawndale Unified School District
  • Lennox Unified School District
  • Little Lake City School District
  • Long Beach Unified School District
  • Los Angeles Unified
  • Los Nietos School District
  • Lynwood Unified School District
  • Manhattan Beach Unified School District
  • Monrovia School District
  • Montebello Unified School District
  • Moorpark Unified School District
  • Mountain View School District
  • Newhall School District
  • Norwalk-La Mirada Unified School District
  • Oak Park School District
  • Palmdale School District
  • Palos Verdes Peninsula School District
  • Paramount Unified School District
  • Pasadena Unified School District
  • Pomona Unified School District
  • Redondo Beach Unified School District
  • Rosemead School District
  • Rowland Unified School District
  • San Gabriel Unified School District
  • San Marino Unified School District
  • Santa Monica-Malibu Unified School District
  • Santa Paula Elementary School District
  • Santa Paula Union HSD
  • Saugus Union School District
  • Simi Valley Unified School District
  • South Whittier School District
  • Sulphur Springs School District
  • Temple City Unified School District
  • Torrance Unified School District
  • Valley Lindo School District
  • Walnut Valley Unified School District
  • West Covina Unified School District
  • Westside Unified School District
  • Whittier City School District
  • Whittier Union HSD
  • William Hart School District
  • Wilsona School District
  • Wiseburn Unified School District
  • All
  • ABC/Norwalk-La Mirada SELPA
  • Antelope Valley SELPA
  • Downey-Montebello SELPA
  • East San Gabriel Valley SELPA
  • Foothill SELPA
  • Long Beach SELPA
  • Los Angeles USD SELPA
  • Mid-Cities SELPA
  • Pasadena USD SELPA
  • Pomona USD SELPA
  • Puente Hills SELPA
  • Santa Clarita SELPA
  • Southwest SELPA
  • Tri-City SELPA
  • Ventura County SELPA
  • West San Gabriel Valley SELPA
  • Whittier Area Cooperative Special Education Plan (WACSEP)
  • All
  • Alhambra
  • Bellflower
  • Beverly Hills
  • Camarillo
  • Covina
  • Culver City
  • Glendale
  • Long Beach
  • Los Angeles
  • Norwalk
  • Palmdale
  • Pasadena
  • Pomona
  • Redondo Beach
  • Rowland Heights
  • Santa Clarita
  • Whittier
  • All
  • 90017
  • 90212
  • 90232
  • 90278
  • 90602
  • 90650
  • 90706
  • 90810
  • 91109
  • 91207
  • 91355
  • 91722-2055
  • 91748
  • 91767
  • 91801
  • 93012
  • 93552
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Resident School Finder

 

 

Professional Development

Professional development is comprised of activities and trainings provided to support the achievement of students with disabilities in their educational programs by promoting accessibility to the curriculum, instructional strategies, intervention, and disability awareness. These opportunities are developed and provided by LAUSD, Division of Special Education-Private School Office throughout the school year. Professional development opportunities may be offered at private schools, District sites, or community locations.
 

Which students receive these services?

Professional development is an indirect special education support that is provided to any student with:

  • A special education eligibility
  • Who has been parentally placed in a private school located within LAUSD boundaries
  • A current Individual Services Plan

Professional development service is provided to:

  • Private school teachers and administrators who have students with disabilities attending their schools.

 

What does this alternative service provide?

These opportunities are designed to provide private school staff of students with disabilities with training and instructional resources to address a wide range of disability-related educational needs. Private school staff may participate in professional development activities designed to address:

  • Instructional strategies to facilitate access to the curriculum.
  • Strategies for positive behavior support and/or social skills development.
  • Pre-referral instructional interventions and data-driven decision making.

 

How will private school staff be informed of professional development opportunities?

The Division of Special Education-Private School Office shall provide notices of scheduled activities to private schools via mail, email, and/or through events posted on this website. School staff may contact the Private School Office to submit a request regarding topics for future consideration. LAUSD will not be responsible for any costs incurred by private school staff who attend a District sponsored professional development event.

 

Procedures:

  •  

    Parents and Guardians Private School Staff District staff

Resources:

  •               Welligent                MyPLN    Keyword: Private  

                                                                                                                                                               

                                                     REF 6846.0