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A change in:  the course, standard, or test preparation; location, timing, scheduling, expectations; student response and/or other attribute which provides access for a student with a disability to participate in a course, standard or test but which does not fundamentally alter or lower the course, standard, or test.

A modified general physical education program or a specially designed physical education program in a special class, or consultative services provided to students, parents, teachers, or other school personnel for the purpose of identifying supplementary aids and services or modifications necessary for participation in the general physical education program or specially designed physical education program.

The instrument used for students who, due to their severe cognitive delays, are instructed from the Alternate Curriculum.

A State and/or District adopted curriculum for students who are unable to succeed in the general curriculum.

A Federal statute that prohibits discrimination/harassment on the basis of disability in the areas of employment, public transportation, telecommunications, access to public services programs, and activities of State and local governments, as well as those of commercial facilities, private businesses, and nonprofit service providers.

The individualized education program team’s estimate, in measurable terms, of what the student can reasonably be expected to accomplish with special education and related services during the next 12 months based on the student’s present levels of performance, potential for learning, and rate of development.

See speech or language impairment.

An individual evaluation of a student in areas of suspected disability and/or educational performance.

A written statement that delineates how a student will be evaluated.

Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted or the replacement of such a device.

Any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, or use of an assistive technology device.

A free appropriate public education is provided without charge, but does not preclude incidental fees that are normally charged to nondisabled students or their parents as part of the general education program.

Aural rehabilitation (auditory training, speech reading, language habilitation, and speech conservation) and habilitation with individual students in the general classroom; monitoring hearing levels, auditory behavior, and amplification for all pupils requiring personal or group amplification in the instructional setting; planning, organizing, and implementing an audiology program for students with auditory dysfunctions, as specified in the individualized education program; or consultative services regarding test finding, amplification needs and equipment, otological referrals, home training programs, acoustic treatment of rooms, and coordination of educational services to hearing impaired students.

A student exhibits any combination of the following autistic-like behaviors, to include but not limited to:

  • An inability to use oral language for appropriate communication
  • A history of extreme withdrawal or relating to people inappropriately and continued impairment in social interaction from infancy through early childhood
  • An obsession to maintain sameness
  • Extreme preoccupation with objects or inappropriate use of objects, or both
  • Extreme resistance to controls
  • Displays peculiar motoric mannerisms and mobility patterns
  • Self-stimulating, ritualistic behavior

The systematic implementation of procedures that result in lasting positive changes in the individual’s behavior including the design, implementation, and evaluation of individual and group instructional and environmental modifications and behavioral instruction. Behavioral interventions do not include procedures which cause pain or trauma.

A written document developed by an IEP team for any student with a disability experiencing daily behavior challenges in the classroom or school setting which interferes with the student’s learning and progress toward mastery of individualized education program goals and objectives. For behaviors not serious enough to warrant a behavioral intervention plan.

The demonstration of a serious behavior problem which has not previously been observed and for which a behavioral intervention plan has not been developed, or for which a previously designed behavioral intervention is not effective.

Specific statements of what students should know. They allow for tracking a student’s progress through school and help determine if a student’s educational program is appropriate.

See visual impairment.

A student who has a mental or physical disability which limits one or more of the student’s major life activities.

A student, age three through twenty-one, evaluated in accordance with Federal and State policy as having an intellectual disability, a hearing impairment including deafness, a speech or language impairment, a visual impairment including blindness, emotional disturbance, an orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, an other health impairment, a specific learning disability, or multiple disabilities, and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.

Any individual, including a person’s duly authorized representative or an interested third party, public agency, or organization who files a written complaint alleging violations of Federal or State laws or regulations, or District policies or procedures.


Parental approval of an activity once the parent; has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought, in his/her native language or other mode of communication; understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for which his/her consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and list the records, if any, that will be released and to whom; and understands that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent and may be revoked at any time and that revocation of consent is not retroactive.

What students are expected to know and be able to do in each subject area and grade level.

English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign language, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography.


The basic curriculum utilized by the general education program based on State Standards and aligned to the State Content Area Frameworks.

Calendar days unless otherwise designated.

A student has a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which impairs the processing of linguistic information through hearing, even with amplification, and which adversely affects educational performance. Processing information includes speech and language reception and speech and language discrimination.

A student has concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes severe communication, developmental, and educational problems.

See related services.

The education of a student with a disability enrolled part-time in a nonpublic school and part-time in a public school.

Educational counseling in which the student is assisted in planning and implementing his/her immediate and long-range educational program; career counseling in which the student is assisted in assessing his/her aptitudes, abilities, and interests in order to make realistic career decisions; personal counseling in which the student is helped to develop his/her ability to function with social and personal responsibility; or counseling with parents and staff members on learning problems and guidance programs for students.

A student exhibits one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree which adversely affect educational performance:

  • An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
  • An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
  • Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances exhibited in several situations.
  • A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
  • A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

Designed to supplement the English Language Arts standards to ensure that English learners develop proficiency in both the English language and the concepts and skills contained in the English Language Arts standards.

Explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary development, reading fluency including oral reading skills, and reading comprehension strategies.

A disabling medical condition or congenital syndrome that the individualized education program team determines has a high predictability of requiring special education and related services. Applies only to children ages three through four.

Special education and related services provided during the summer/intersession for a student with disabilities that an IEP team determines needs such services to prevent regression of learned skills or behaviors that the student is unlikely to recoup in a reasonable period of time, or for a student with severe disabilities to learn critical skills that are essential to the student’s progress and lead to independent functioning and integration with nondisabled individuals.

A Federal statute giving parents the right to inspect and review their child’s educational records, to amend errors or inaccuracies in those records, and to consent to disclosure of records.

Special education and related services that are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge; meet the standards of the California Department of Education and the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; include preschool, elementary or secondary education; and are provided in conformity with an individualized education program.

A student has a hearing impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, which impairs processing of linguistic information through hearing, even with amplification, and which adversely affects educational performance, but the severity of the impairment does not establish eligibility under the definition of deafness. Processing linguistic information includes speech and language reception and speech and language discrimination.

Managing the student’s health problems on the school site; consulting with students, parents, teachers, and other school personnel; group and individual counseling with parents and students regarding health problems; maintaining communication with health agencies providing care to students with disabilities; or providing services by qualified personnel.

Instruction delivered to students with disabilities, individually, in small groups, or by teleclass, whose medical condition such as those related to surgery, accidents, short-term illness or medical treatment for a chronic illness prevents the student from attending school.

A controlled substance, but does not include a controlled substance that is legally possessed or used under the supervision of a licensed health-care professional or that is legally possessed or used under any legal authority.

A service delivery option for students with moderate to severe disabilities that brings specially designed instruction and supports for students with disabilities into the context of regular education settings. Students may be partially or fully included in general education with supports provided by a collaborative team.

See child (student) with a disability (special education).

A written statement for a student with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting that meets the requirements of Federal and State policy.

A written plan providing early intervention services to infants or toddlers and their families who have been determined eligible for early intervention services and that meets the requirements of Federal and State policy.

A Federal statute setting substantive and procedural standards for the provision of special education and early intervention to children with disabilities and funding to State and local education agencies. It also supports personnel preparation, research, technical assistance, and model programs.

Students initially identified through an assessment process as fluent English-proficient at the time of enrollment.

A student has significantly below average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, which adversely affects a pupil’s educational performance.

A written document negotiated between two or more public agencies which defines each agency’s role and responsibilities for providing services to students with disabilities and for facilitating the coordination of these services.

See speech and language impairment.

Screening, assessment, individualized education program development, and direct speech language services delivered to students with disabilities who demonstrate difficulty understanding or using spoken language to such an extent that it adversely affects their educational performance and cannot be corrected without special education and related services.

That to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled; and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.

A student who was not born in the United States or whose language is a language other than English: or is Native American, Alaska Native or a native resident of an outlying area; and who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; and whose difficulties in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language may be sufficient to deny the individual the ability to meet the State’s proficiency level of achievement on  State assessments, the ability to successfully achieve in classrooms where the language of instruction is English, or the opportunity to participate fully in society.

A severe disabling condition with an expected incidence rate of less than one percent of the total statewide enrollment in kindergarten through grade 12. Included are hearing impairments, vision impairments, and severe orthopedic impairments, or any combination thereof.

A problem-solving activity whereby a third party assists the parties to a dispute in resolving the problem.

A change in: the course, standard, or test preparation; location, timing, scheduling, expectations; student response, and/or other attribute which provides access for a student with a disability to participate in a course, standard, or test, but which does fundamentally alter or lower the standard or expectation of the course, standard, or test.

Concomitant impairments, the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. One of the impairments must be hearing, orthopedic, or vision. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

See multiple disabilities.

 See multiple disabilities.

See multiple disabilities.

A private establishment or individual that is certified by the California Department of Education and that provides related services necessary to implement a student’s individualized education program.

A private school, certified by the California Department of Education, that enrolls students with disabilities pursuant to an individualized education program.

Sequential, incremental, and measurable written statements, developed by an individualized education program team to mark progress toward attainment of annual goals.

The use of various treatment modalities including self-help skills, language and educational techniques as well as sensory or motor integration, physical restoration methods, and prevocational exploration to facilitate physical and psychosocial growth and development.

The office within the U.S. Department of Education responsible for the administration of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

Specialized instruction for students in orientation and mobility techniques or consultative services to other educators and parents regarding instructional planning and implementation of the individualized education program relative to the development of orientation and mobility skills and independent living.

A student has a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects the student’s educational performance.  The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc.), impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

A student has limited strength, vitality or alertness, due to chronic or acute health problems, including but not limited to a heart condition, cancer, leukemia, rheumatic fever, chronic kidney disease, cystic fibrosis, severe asthma, epilepsy, lead poisoning, tuberculosis, and other communicable infectious diseases and hematological disorders such as sickle cell anemia and hemophilia which adversely affects a student’s educational performance. This health problem is not temporary in nature.

A student in one grade is assessed for achievement using a version of a test intended for students in another grade.

Includes; a person having legal custody of a student, a person acting in place of a parent, such as a grandparent or stepparent with whom the student lives; an individual designated by the parents to act on behalf of the student; a foster parent if the natural parent’s authority to make decisions has been limited by court order and the foster parent has an ongoing long term parental relationship with the student, is willing to assume the role of parent in educational decision making and has no interest that would conflict with the interest of the student, the student, if age 18 or older, for whom no guardian or conservator has been appointed; a surrogate parent appointed for a student who is a ward of the State or for a student whose parent is unknown or whose whereabouts cannot be determined, and an individual designated by the parents to act on behalf of the student.

Geared toward assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their child and providing parents with information about child development. Credentialed professionals hold workshops at school sites or Local District offices throughout the District.

See visual impairment

Specific knowledge and skills that students are expected to demonstrate.

Development of physical and motor fitness; fundamental motor skills and patterns; and skills in dance, individual and group games and sports; and includes specially designed physical education, adapted physical education, movement education, and motor development.

Administration of active, passive, and resistive therapeutic exercises and local or general massage, muscle training and corrective exercises and coordination work; administration of hydrotherapy treatments; assistance in administrating various types of electrotherapy including ultraviolet, infrared, diathermy and inductothermy; teaching parents of hospitalized students exercises which are to be continued at home and interpret to them the significance of physical therapy services; and instruction in walking, standing, balance, use of crutches, cane or walker and in the care of braces and artificial limbs.

Written statements developed by an individualized education program team of how a student is performing in school including progress in the general curriculum or an alternative curriculum and State standards.

The language normally used by an individual. In all direct contact with a child (including evaluation of the child) the language normally used by the child in the home or learning environment. For an individual with deafness or blindness or no written language, the mode of communication that is normally used by the individual (such as sign language, Braille, or oral communication).

Psychological counseling provided to students with disabilities; consultative services to parents, students, teachers and other school personnel; or planning and implementing a program of psychological counseling for students with disabilities and parents. This term does not include assessment services and the development of the individualized education program.

A service delivery option where the student is removed from the general education setting to receive specialized instruction from a service provider other than the classroom teacher.

Personnel who have met the State of California’s approved or recognized certification, licensing, registration, or other comparable requirements that apply to the area in which the individuals are providing special education and related services.

The period of time needed for a student to reacquire a skill lost (regression) during the summer/intersession.

Therapeutic recreation and specialized instructional programs designed to assist students to become as independent as possible in leisure activities and when possible and appropriate, facilitate the pupil’s integration into general recreation programs; recreation programs in schools and the community that emphasize the use of leisure activity in the teaching of academic, social, and daily living skills and the provision of non-academic and extracurricular leisure activities and the utilization of community recreation programs and facilities; or leisure education programs designed to prepare the student for optimum independent participation in appropriate leisure activities, and developing awareness of personal and community leisure resources.

Students who acquired English language skills in school and subsequently passed assessments to redesignate to fluent English proficient.

The significant loss of a skill during the summer/intersession.

Transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes; speech- language pathology and audiology services, interpreter services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, therapeutic recreation, counseling services, rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, school nurse services designed to enable a student with a disability to receive a free appropriate public education as described in the individualized education program of the student, social work services in schools, and parent counseling and training. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted or the replacement of such device.

Instruction and services for students with disabilities who are assigned to general education teachers for the majority of the school day, including; the provision of information and assistance to students with disabilities and their parents; provision of consultation, resource information, and material regarding students with disabilities to parents and staff; coordination of special education services with the general school programs for each student enrolled in the resource specialist program; monitoring of pupil progress on a regular basis; and at the secondary level, emphasis on academic achievement, career and vocational development, and preparation for adult life.

A Federal civil rights statute that prohibits discrimination/harassment on the basis of disability in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.

A bodily injury that involves a substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty.

Individual or group counseling with the student and his/her immediate family; consultation with students, parents, teachers and other personnel, regarding the effects of family and other social factors on the learning and developmental requirements of children with disabilities; or developing a network of community resources, making appropriate referral and maintaining liaison relationships among the school, student, family, and the various agencies providing social income maintenance, employment development, mental health, or other developmental services.

Programs that serve students with disabilities with similar and more intensive educational needs. Students can only be placed in special day programs when an individualized education program team determines that education in general education classes with the use of supplementary aids and services, including curriculum modification and behavioral support, cannot be achieved satisfactorily.

Specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and instruction in physical education; and speech language pathology, travel training and vocational education if they are required to meet the unique needs of the child.

Instruction to students with disabilities to supplement the general driver-training program.

Adapting, as appropriate, to the needs of a child with a disability, the content, methodology or means of instruction to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability; and to ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that he/she can meet the educational standards that apply to all children.

Providing prevocational programs and assessing work-related skills, interests, aptitudes, and attitudes; coordinating and modifying the general vocational education program; assisting pupils in developing attitudes, self-confidence, and vocational competencies to locate, secure and retain employment in the community or sheltered environment and to enable such students to become participating members of the community; establishing work training programs within the school and community; assisting in job placement; instructing job trainers and employers as to the unique needs of the student; or coordinating services with the Department of Rehabilitation, the Employment Development Department and other agencies as designated in the individualized education program.

A student has a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological process involved in understanding or in using language spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an impaired ability to listen, think, speak, read, spell or do mathematical calculations, and has a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement in one or more academic areas. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of an intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

A student shall be assessed as having a language or speech disorder which makes him or her eligible for special education and related services when he or she demonstrates difficulty understanding or using spoken language to such an extent that it adversely affects his or her educational performance and cannot be corrected without special education and related services. The disorder is not due to unfamiliarity with English.

General statements of what students should know or be able to do as the result of education.

A formal general education process that helps school site personnel and parents address the learning and/or behavioral needs of individual students.

Aids, services and other supports that are provided in general education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.

An individual appointed to assume the role of parent in special education decision making when the student is a ward of the State or the parent is unknown or unavailable.

A coordinated set of activities for a student with a disability that is designed within an outcome oriented process; that promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community participation; is based on the individual student’s needs, taking into account the student’s preferences and interests; and includes instruction, related services, community experiences, the development of employment and other post-school adult living objectives, and, if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills and functional vocational evaluation.

An acquired injury to the brain caused by physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.  The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas such as: cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, sensory, perceptual and motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing, and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

Providing instruction, as appropriate, to children with significant cognitive disabilities, and any other children with disabilities that require this instruction, to enable them to develop an awareness of the environment in which they live; and learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment.

Adaptations in curriculum, media, and the environment, as well as instruction in special skills; or consultative services to students, parents, teachers, and other school personnel.

A pupil has a visual impairment which, even with correction, adversely affects a student’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

Organized educational programs that are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment or for additional preparation for a career requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree.